Heinrich Mann obtained an optimistic attitude throughout The Meaning and Idea of the Revolution he published in December 1918. He refers to Germany’s loss in the war as a gift, and that it will allow them to improve their country greatly: by making it a republic. Mann refers to the ideas we discussed in last weeks reading by Schivelbusch about the Germans having an unrealistic self-image. He discusses the “falsification of [their] entire national character with the boasting, provocation, lies, and self-deceit…” He is happy that their imperial and dictatorship past now lies behind them and that they can move on to a republic governed by the people. A republic where all are considered equal. Mann’s desires are expressed and made priorities in The Constitution of the German Republic, a document that I am sure was very reassuring for him. In Chapter 1 Section 1 Article 1 it states that “political authority emanates from the people,” a desire central to Mann’s hope for the future of Germany. In terms of the equality of all that Mann discussed, in Chapter 1 Section 1 Article 17 it says that “The representatives of the people must be elected by universal, equal, direct, and secret suffrage of all German citizens, both men and women…” In Chapter 2 Section 1 Article 109 the constitution goes even further to say that “All germans are equal by law. Men and women have the same fundamental clivil rights and duties. Public legal privileges or disadvantages of birth to rank are abolished.” The constitution also grants the people civil liberties such as freedom of speech, press, religion, private property, education, and more. It is a huge step towards the future that Mann hoped for when he said “Our Germany will become righteous, free and true…” Mann kept discussing the need of socialism to maintain uprightness. This constitution does not establish Germany as a socialist country. While there are socialist ideals present, it does not go all the way and make the republic socialist. I feel that Mann, along with many others, such as those in support of the Spartacus Manifesto, would be disappointed by the constitutions failure to do so. It is obvious that the leaders of Germany at the beginning of the republic felt that in order to establish a socialist state, it would require time to get there and be able to maintain it. However, as we now know, it would never quite get there to the extent the SPD, USPD, or the Spartacus desired. In the Spartacus manifesto it is written “Socialism alone is in a position to complete the great work of permanent peace…”   Mann says something a little less extreme however with a similar concept stating that “Uprightness has long demanded the extensive realization of socialism.” For many, the possibility of a socialist Germany in the future brought them so much hope for what was to come. Unfortunately, we now know better, and know that what Germany had in store was nothing like the peaceful future the socialists hoped for after the revolution. Millions of people’s lives would have been spared if the socialist’s dreams had come true.